When the effects of wind or earthquake forces are considered, then, maximum permissible values of stresses are increased by 25 per cent. Finding Forces in Welded Connections. It is fillet weld stressed in longitudinal shear, i. By andrew hamrick Date Figure 4: Parts of a Groove Weld The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article.
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Destructive Testing of Welds

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Effective area of butt weld The effective area of a butt weld is taken as the product of the effective throat thickness and the effective length of butt weld. Note, however, that this is a very simplistic calculation and does not take into account any other stresses bending, torsion etc that the weld may experience. In service applications, where complete weld penetration to the inside of the piping is required, socket welds are not acceptable, and generally butt welds must be made. Lack of penetration by default is lack of fusion as some part of the fusion face has not been fused, otherwise it would be a concave root Inversely as you've pointed out, penetration does not necessarily mean proper fusion either. Welds may be classified into two main types namely butt-weld and fillet-weld.
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Design of Fillet Welds According to EN | Dlubal Software

While changes in arc voltage can result in minimal changes in weld penetration, the effect is very minor compared to welding current and the other variables just listed in this article. Butt weld This type of weld is used when the members are in same plane. To guarantee that the minimum design throat has been achieved it is necessary to control welding parameters and fit-up within very tight tolerances. Welds with improper dimensions may have inconsistent quality or increased crack sensitivity. Steel bars in reinforced concrete structure may be welded easily so that lapping of bars may be avoided. During the prefab from a pipe on a elbow e. The butt weld is used to join structural members carrying direct compression or tension.
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This should be applied particularly to side and top fillet weld in tension. The joints are depicted in Figure 5. There are thus substantial cost and weight penalties to be paid if the joint is either over-specified by the designer or over-welded by the welder. Calculation of fillet weld throat It is assumed for design purposes that fillet welds fail through the throat and it is therefore a simple matter to calculate the cross sectional area capable of carrying this applied load when the strength of the weld metal is known. IX breaks it down as follows: Complete fusion - fusion which as occurred over the entire base material surfaces intended for welding, and between all layers and beads fusion fusion welding - the melting together of filler metal and base metal, or of base metal only, to produce a weld. Root penetration is the distance into the root face, or beyond the bottom of the bevel, the weld melted or fused.
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Fillet weld penetration cross section

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